Research ArticleBIOCHEMISTRY

Age-associated molecular changes are deleterious and may modulate life span through diet

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Science Advances  17 Feb 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 2, e1601833
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601833
  • Fig. 1 Testing the effects of age-related changes on life span in three model organisms.

    Experimental design of this study included (A) yeast (S. cerevisiae), (B) fruitflies (D. melanogaster), and (C) mice (M. musculus).

  • Fig. 2 Age of yeast cells, which are used as components of growth media, modulates the replicative life span of S. cerevisiae.

    (A) Sampling of cells for media preparation. Wild-type (WT) yeast cells were subjected to chronological aging. Cells were grown in YPD medium, and after the culture reached the stationary phase, cells were collected on days 3 (blue, young) and 8 (red, old). Viability of yeast cells as a function of chronological age was assessed and is also shown in the figure. (B) Replicative life span of yeast cells grown on culture media containing the lysates of young (blue; n = 30) and old (red; n = 30) cells. See table S1 for life-span analysis of individual dietary groups.

  • Fig. 3 Age of fruitflies, whose lysates are used as a dietary source of protein, modulates the life span of female D. melanogaster.

    (A) Survival curves of female fruitflies reared on diets containing various carbohydrate and protein sources: Control (1X sugar and 1X yeast; n = 85), 1X fly lysate (1X sugar and 1X fly lysate; n = 100), 0.5X fly lysate (1X sugar and 0.5X fly lysate; n = 96), 0.5X sugar and 0.5X fly lysate (n = 105), and 0.5X sugar only (n = 95). The diet based on 1X fly lysate supports the normal life span of D. melanogaster. (B) Kaplan-Meier survival curves of female fruitflies subjected to diets containing lysates of young (n = 121) or old flies (n = 96). The log-rank test was used for statistical analysis. See table S2 for life-span analysis of individual dietary groups.

  • Fig. 4 Age of the skeletal muscle used as a component of diet may modulate the life span of mice.

    Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the indicated dietary groups containing young and old skeletal muscles. (A) All mice. (B) Females only. (C) Males only. Data were from 30 mice in the young diet group (17 females and 13 males) and 30 mice in the old group (17 females and 13 males). The log-rank test was used for statistical analysis. See table S5 for life-span analysis of individual dietary groups.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/2/e1601833/DC1

    fig. S1. Growth curve and independent replicates of life-span analysis in yeast.

    fig. S2. Replicative life span in yeast experiment.

    fig. S3. Gompertz fits of survival curves in different experiments.

    fig. S4. Age-associated changes in amino acid levels in fruitflies.

    fig. S5. Change of body weights and life span of the control group compared with the young and old diet groups in mice.

    fig. S6. Percentage of mice with tumor and tumor spectrum in the different diet groups.

    fig. S7. Fecal microbiota of female mice at 270 days after starting the diet.

    table S1. Replicative life-span analysis of yeast cells grown on young and old diets.

    table S2. Life-span analysis from survival curves in the young and old diet groups in fruitflies.

    table S3. Proximate composition (%, w/w) of muscles from young and old red deer.

    table S4. Ingredients, energy, and macronutrient content of experimental diets in the mice study.

    table S5. Life-span analysis from survival curves in the young and old dietary groups in mice.

    table S6. Life-span analysis from survival curves of the control group compared with the young and old diet groups.

    table S7. Pathology at time of death in all experimental diet groups.

    table S8. Relative abundance of selected bacterial groups found in fecal samples of female mice.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Growth curve and independent replicates of life-span analysis in yeast.
    • fig. S2. Replicative life span in yeast experiment.
    • fig. S3. Gompertz fits of survival curves in different experiments.
    • fig. S4. Age-associated changes in amino acid levels in fruitflies.
    • fig. S5. Change of body weights and life span of the control group compared with the young and old diet groups in mice.
    • fig. S6. Percentage of mice with tumor and tumor spectrum in the different diet groups.
    • fig. S7. Fecal microbiota of female mice at 270 days after starting the diet.
    • table S1. Replicative life-span analysis of yeast cells grown on young and old diets.
    • table S2. Life-span analysis from survival curves in the young and old diet groups in fruitflies.
    • table S3. Proximate composition (%, w/w) of muscles from young and old red deer.
    • table S4. Ingredients, energy, and macronutrient content of experimental diets in the mice study.
    • table S5. Life-span analysis from survival curves in the young and old dietary groups in mice.
    • table S6. Life-span analysis from survival curves of the control group compared with the young and old diet groups.
    • table S7. Pathology at time of death in all experimental diet groups.
    • Legend for table S8

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • table S8 (Microsoft Excel format). Relative abundance of selected bacterial groups found in fecal samples of female mice.

    Files in this Data Supplement: