Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/4/e1601315/DC1

section S1. Data sets

section S2. *D*_{μ} and *D*_{θ} distributions

section S3. Alternative measures of *D*_{θ} produce equivalent results

section S4. Simple null model of referencing with respect to the age of a publication or patent

section S5. Demonstration case

section S6. Robustness checks for alternative measures of being a hit beyond the top 5% (top 1, 10, 25, and 50%) for papers

section S7. Further robustness checks

section S8. Standardized coefficients of papers

section S9. Regression analyses of patents

section S10. Predicting referencing in the hotspot

section S11. BIC statistics for supplemental regression analyses

fig. S1. Reference age distributions.

fig. S2. Switching references in the null model.

fig. S3. Expected and observed distributions of reference age distributions.

table S1. Alternative measures of *D*_{θ} produce consistent results.

table S2. Demonstration case of search and impact.

table S3. Probability of being in the top 1% of citations for papers.

table S4. Probability of being in the top 10% of citations for papers.

table S5. The probability of being in the top 25% of citations for papers.

table S6. The probability of being in the top 50% of citations for papers.

table S7. The probability of being a sleeping beauty paper at different levels of citations.

table S8. Fixed-effects ordinary least squares regression estimating the relationship between *D*_{μ} and *D*_{θ} and the citations acquired in the first 8 years after publication and for all citations over a paper’s lifetime.

table S9. Approximate PageRank analysis.

table S10. Standardized coefficients of the probability of being in the top 5% of papers.

table S11. Probability of being in the top 5% of citations for patents.

table S12. Probability of being in the top 1% of citations for patents.

table S13. Probability of a paper referencing work in the knowledge hotspot for coauthors versus solo authors.